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Mind the gap — solutions to Joburg’s inner-city housing crisis hamstrung by budget constraints

A housing shortage is one of the biggest problems faced by South Africa, with the City of Johannesburg especially struggling.
Daily Maverick has interviewed various experts on how to counter the urban housing crisis in Joburg and around the country.
Read part 1: “Bad to worse — massive gap in rightful housing and basic service delivery for Joburg’s inner city low-income residents”
Inner cities are spaces to live, work freely, learn and play — facets of life previously denied to the majority of South Africans under apartheid. However, under the banner of democracy, the urban poor continue to be marginalised by being denied affordable low-income housing options.
Addressing this inequity would mean undoing many injustices of the apartheid government.
Lebogang Lechuba, marketing communications manager at South African Cities Network, told Daily Maverick it is critical that metropolitan core nodes, with the opportunities to further densify, offer multiple housing options for those with lower and no incomes in the inner city.
She notes that affordable housing in the inner cities requires all stakeholders, including the government, to maximise the use of municipal land and buildings that are underutilised, vacant and underdeveloped.
“It also requires maximising of resources with the use of policies such as the inclusionary housing policy, land value capture tools and the social housing capital grants. for social housing institutions and also other delivery agents such as the private sector,” said Lechuba.
“Then there are innovations and partnerships required between multiple role-players (cities, national departments, banks, and property owners) for rehabilitating sectional title properties, which are a significant portion of hijacked buildings in Johannesburg and are very complex to solve.”
Municipal programmes and budgets
However, the primary responsibility of affordable housing lies in the already overstretched programmes and budgets of municipalities.
In the City of Johannesburg, there is no housing code or a more permanent solution to the growing housing need for the urban poor, as confirmed by the city’s Patrick Phophi.
“The housing department’s strategy is to drill deep into the lowest income groups R0-R3,500. the destitute is encapsulated in the Inner-City Housing Implementation Plan [Ichip — a programme for tackling the housing challenge within the inner city and creating safe, clean and connected communities with access to economic opportunities within the area]. At this time, the programme is solely funded by the city and is not in the housing code. It speaks to the provision of Temporary Emergency Accommodation and Alternative Rental Accommodation,” Phophi said.
‘No interest’ from City of ...

Early learning centres get a ‘SmartStart’ and children are winning

All children deserve access to a quality early learning programme, but in South Africa, the need outweighs the supply — particularly in lower-income communities. Early learning nonprofit, SmartStart, is working to close the access gap by providing support and training to those seeking to get centres off the ground.
The results of the ECD (early childhood development) Census 2021 showed that of the estimated 6.7 million children under six in South Africa, only about 25% were being taken care of at an early learning programme on any given day. Given the importance of development in the early years, this points to a need for considerable expansion of the country’s ECD sector.
One local organisation, SmartStart, is contributing to this expansion by providing support and training for prospective ECD practitioners working to get home- and community-based centres off the ground.
“Obviously there’s a big crisis around access – over a million children either don’t access any early learning programme before school, or the ones they do attend are inappropriate,” said Justine Jowell, programme design and development lead at SmartStart.
There is a “double barrier” to setting up an ECD centre in South Africa, as the infrastructure required is not attainable in many communities, and once a centre is set up, it often falls short of the standards needed to access the state early learning subsidy.
Read in Daily Maverick: “Early childhood development centres in SA continue to struggle with registration and access to subsidies”
“SmartStart was set up as a [means of] trying to look for. a quality solution that’s relatively quick and affordable to set up and deliver across the country, so that we can bring in as many children as fast as possible into early learning,” said Jowell.
Using a social franchise model, SmartStart works with organisations across South Africa to recruit and train those who are interested in starting their own early learning centres.
“[Participants] have to meet certain recruitment criteria. Then if they do, they get their initial training, which helps them to understand how to set up a quality programme [and] how they will deliver it,” explained Jowell.
Those who complete the training receive support in setting up their own ECD centres. SmartStart field workers, known as “coaches”, check on the basic health and safety standards at each site.
“[SmartStart practitioners] are supported by their coach, their infield worker, to deliver a quality programme,” said Jowell. “Then, within three to six months, the quality of their ...

HIV/Aids inequality must end to halt the persistent epidemic

As we look at the year ahead, urgent work remains to build on past successes and to bring the HIV epidemic sustainably under control. Amongst others, we need to address persistent stigma and discrimination, as well as the structural and social factors that put women and girls at increased risk of HIV infection, argues Rachel Toku-Appiah.
Today, on World Aids Day 2022, we are living in such a different world from 20 years ago.
Let’s just take the statistical temperature:
In 2021, there were 38.4 million people living with HIV.
Africa remains statistically over-represented. 67% of those living with the disease are in sub-Saharan Africa, but we’ve also seen the sharpest reduction in infection of any region in the world. Between 2010 and 2020, HIV infection rates declined by 43% in eastern and southern Africa.
For those living with the disease, access to treatment has soared. 78% of people in eastern and southern Africa now receive treatment (while the global average sits at 75%).
And, between 2010 and 2021, Aids-related deaths in eastern and southern Africa fell by 58%.
It’s fair to say that the dramatic advances we have seen in the fight against HIV amount to one of the greatest success stories in global health and development.
It is because of the successful global collaboration among activists, policymakers, governments, community leaders, and donors that achievements like these have been made possible. The result of these collaborations can be seen across Africa.
In Botswana, thanks to ongoing partnership and collaboration between its government and the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the US President’s Emergency Plan for Aids Relief, the country reached the UNAids “95-95-95” strategy target in July this year. This is four years ahead of the target date. That means 95% of all people in the country living with HIV are aware of their status, 95% of those aware of their status are receiving sustained antiretroviral treatment (ART), and 95% of people receiving ART are achieving viral load suppression — meaning a reduction of HIV in the body to undetectable levels. All this just some months after the World Health Organization had awarded the country Silver Tier status for lowering the rate of mother-to-child HIV transmission to less than 5% and providing prenatal care and ART to more than 90% of pregnant women living with HIV.
‘The fight is not over’
We have come so far. But despite these astonishing efforts and incredible advancements, the fight is ...

Size doesn’t matter – four ways to make it easy to take the HIV prevention pill

The Aurum Institute is making it easier for people to access HIV prevention medication. Its project includes a screening tool and support groups, and has already reached more than 100,000 people.
How would you feel if a nurse held out an enormous blue tablet and said you have to swallow it with water every single day?
The HIV prevention pill Tenemine (a generic form of the branded drug Truvada) is big and bulky. At nearly 2cm long and almost 1cm wide, it’s about the size of a large jellybean.
The tablet is made up of two antiretroviral drugs (the medicine used to treat HIV), tenofovir and emtricitabine. If taken daily, it can reduce someone’s chance of contracting HIV through sex by up to 93%, studies have shown. Researchers have also found that taking the medication a day before and two days after sex worked just as well to prevent infection in men who have sex with men and transgender women.
This type of protection is called oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP. (So, it’s a medicine you take before you’re exposed to a potentially harmful germ.)
But the high level of protection kicks in only if people take the tablets – and stick to it. The less often someone uses the medication, the lower the level of protection becomes.
At the Aurum Institute, an HIV and tuberculosis nonprofit, we’ve been running a PrEP programme at five of our Pop Inn wellness centres in KwaZulu-Natal, Gauteng and Mpumalanga. These facilities are set up specifically for men who have sex with men and transgender women, groups who are more likely to be become infected with HIV than the general population, partly because the chance of getting HIV from anal sex can be up to 18 times higher than from vaginal sex.
The size of the tablet was one of the reasons people were put off from taking the medicine. By September 2019 only about 8% of people visiting Pop Inn clinics in Ehlanzeni, eThekwini, uMgungundlovu, Tshwane and Ekurhuleni were on PrEP.
But our researchers have figured out how to help people understand that when it comes to protecting yourself against HIV, size doesn’t matter.
Here’s what we’ve learnt.
When people are on the move, move with them
Many of the people we help at Pop Inn clinics are migrants. They move around the country or to other parts of Africa for work or to find better jobs.
Migrant workers who have moved between 40km and ...

In-depth — Experts agree multifaceted approach needed to boost behaviour change efforts in the PrEP era

Thabo Molelekwa asked several experts what behaviour change communications should look like in this new era of HIV prevention.
HIV prevention pills are becoming more widely available in South Africa and the country is set to soon start piloting the use of an HIV prevention injection and vaginal ring. But merely having these pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) tools available in clinics and other places does not mean people will use them.
This dynamic is nothing new.
As seen with Covid-19 vaccines, some people will take up an intervention and others will not. It is also nothing new to have awareness or communications campaigns aimed at encouraging certain behaviours and discouraging others. Some, like encouraging HIV testing and condom use, have worked relatively well — others like promoting abstinence have failed.
So what lessons can we take from the last few decades of health behaviour change efforts as we enter the era of HIV prevention pills, rings and injections?
Meet people where they are
One common refrain from experts we spoke to is that behaviour change efforts have to take into account the views and lived realities of the people the efforts are aimed at. What is needed, argues Professor Susan Goldstein, Deputy Director and COO at the SAMRC Centre for Health Economics and Decision Science — Priceless SA, is holistic social and behaviour change communication that engages with not only the individual but the social, economic, commercial, and political environments that the individual finds themselves in. This should take into account social norms, patriarchy, poverty, gender-based violence, and unemployment.
“Behaviour change communication needs to entail an interactive approach. [It] is adopted in order to develop the most appropriate messages through inclusion of relevant stakeholders, including representatives of the communities or populations for whom the messages are being developed,” says Professor Thesla Palanee-Phillips of the Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute (Wits RHI). Furthermore, she adds, stakeholders who are crucial to the implementation of these efforts need to be capacitated and supported to plan for and ensure the incorporation of these activities as part of a larger comprehensive and sustainable programme.
The importance of sustaining such efforts over time is another common theme.
“Social and behaviour change is a process,” says Goldstein, “so a person doesn’t just start using a condom (or antiretroviral therapy) and then your job is done. They need to continue to do this over their lifetimes.”
There also seems to be general agreement that it is better to ...

Fraud trial against suspended SJC manager escalated, set for January 2023

Xolani Klaas faces charges related to fraud in excess of R730,000.
The fraud case against the Social Justice Coalition’s (SJC) suspended general manager has been escalated to the regional court in Khayelitsha, Cape Town.
Xolani Klaas made a brief appearance at the Khayelitsha Magistrates Court on Thursday. Klaas faces charges related to fraud in excess of R730,000.
In June, a GroundUp investigation revealed that Klaas appeared to be using SJC funds to pay for furniture, household appliances, luxury clothes, watches, groceries, and expensive technology.
Klaas was subsequently suspended and SJC staff laid criminal charges against him at Lingelethu West Police Station. In July, we reported that Klaas had returned some furniture, purchased using SJC money, to the organisation’s offices.
During the hearing on Thursday, it was revealed that the police investigations are complete and that the trial would be heard in the regional court in January 2023.
Visit Daily Maverick’s home page for more news, analysis and investigations
Arson attempt at Khayelitsha Magistrates Court
Meanwhile, in an incident unrelated to Klaas’s case, a fire started by an unknown man at the entrance to the court resulted in activities being suspended for the day.
There were screams and smoke coming from the security area. A few minutes later the building was evacuated.
“A man came in by the security area, started pouring petrol and set it alight. Luckily the security guards acted quickly and managed to stop the man and put out the fire. No one was injured,” said court manager Velile Yayi.
Cases and services at the court were suspended for the day. The court is expected to reopen on Friday.
Yayi said the man was arrested and the motive for the fire is unknown.
A witness said that before the man set the petrol alight, he was heard saying, “I have been coming to this damn court for eight years”. DM
First published by GroundUp.

From the Archives: Rest for the Restless Mind (Part One of Two)

No matter what you experience, be it loss, trauma or everyday shocks that are making you restless, here is some guidance on how to find rest for the restless mind, says clinical psychologist Stefan Blom.
Ed’s note: This story was first published on 19 May 2021. But we know it’s a tough time, so we thought you might need something to help you find some calm in the storm that is our political world right now.
It started with me documenting my own restless mind, in a kind of diary, noting the process from disconnection to connection, from restlessness to peace of mind. Over time, I started observing the journeys of others in therapy: From “I am feeling so lost” and “I don’t know what I need”, to “I feel grounded, aligned, centered. the best I have felt in years”.
“How do you find rest for the restless mind?” is the question I hear most often from my clients; it’s a question I have been wrestling with for many years myself. You might believe that finding rest for your restless mind lies in something extraordinary, something you have never heard of before, but it comes in life’s freest, simplest and gentlest ways.
Here, I share some of my own tried and tested ways while weaving in the wisdom of others whose guidance I’ve found worthwhile.
Understand loss and trauma
Loss and trauma often arise from life’s unexpected and inevitable shocks or surprises. They range from everyday shocks, like a car suddenly swerving in front of you on the road or a stranger shouting at you, to more traumatic losses, like the passing of a loved one or the loss of one’s job or one’s health. We underestimate the distressing effects of a child not being well, or a loved one screaming at you or ignoring you. These experiences often shake us to our core as we feel them in our minds, bodies and souls; and yet, despite their real impacts it seems we often spend most of our time suppressing, avoiding and hiding from our truths.
We experience multiple losses during traumatic events, shocks and new beginnings. The birth of a child or getting married can come with many traumatic experiences and losses (along with the beautiful gains). The effects of a break in trust, the loss of job security or mental ill health can be experienced as loss on many levels, limiting our ability to be ...

Postbank loses over R18-million to cybercrime attacks in three months

Most of the money stolen came from the Sassa beneficiary grant payment system, says CEO.
The South African Postbank is to spend R400-million over the next three years to upgrade and modernise its IT systems.
This follows the state-owned entity losing more than R18-million over a three-month period to cybercrime attacks.
On Tuesday, Postbank CEO Lucas Ndala told Parliament’s portfolio committee on communications that it had “a number of cyber fraud incidents — most of them relating to the Sassa beneficiary grant payment system”.
Ndala said the Postbank IT system had been flagged by the Auditor General for having “control weaknesses”.
“There has been a concerted effort to address these system deficiencies since the grant system was ceded to Postbank in 2021. A lot of these weaknesses come from the system itself because it came with a number of flaws that needed to be addressed over time,” Ndala said.
In response to DA MP Dianne Kohler Barnard on the total cost of the IT update, Ndala said, “The total cost approved is just around R400-million. This will be funded from Postbank resources. The modernisation will be over a three-year period.”
He said the accounts of 141 grant beneficiaries were hit in a cyber attack in August. The state-owned entity lost R5.8-million in this incident.
The second incident happened in September, also involving accounts receiving social grants on behalf of children. Ndala said the Postbank’s Fraud Risk Team discovered that some of these accounts were fraudulent, and, as a preventative measure, these were blocked.
Visit Daily Maverick’s home page for more news, analysis and investigations
However, “the blocking was not done properly,” said Ndala. “Anyone could unblock them within our branch network,” he said. Postbank lost about R4-million in this incident.
In October 2022, Ndala said the Postbank banking system suffered another cybercrime attack and lost about R9-million.
Earlier this year it was revealed that the Postbank had suffered a loss of at least R90-million in cybercrime attacks in October 2021.
Ndala told MPs that Postbank is on the same IT network as the South African Post Office (Sapo). One of the requirements when Postbank applied for a banking licence from the SA Reserve Bank, was that it needed its own “stand-alone IT environment that cannot be impacted by the risks from Sapo”.
Ndala said the report on a forensic audit into the recent cybercrime incidents is expected to be released in December, while the second part of the report is expected in February 2023.
Nonkqubela ...

SIU probe flags hand sanitiser, disinfectant contracts as irregular at Free State’s Lejweleputswa Municipality

The Special Investigating Unit’s latest report has found that the procurement process followed by Lejweleputswa Municipality in procuring hand sanitiser and disinfectant was irregular, prompting referrals from the SIU for disciplinary action against three municipal officials.
A Special Investigating Unit (SIU) investigation has uncovered procurement irregularities in two contracts awarded by the Lejweleputswa District Municipality in the Free State to Biomass Equipment (Pty) Ltd for hand sanitiser and disinfectant.
The municipality failed to ensure the prices charged by Biomass were in line with the prices for personal protective equipment (PPE) determined by National Treasury, resulting in irregular expenditure amounting to R198,792.74 incurred by the municipality.
This is according to the SIU’s supplementary “final” report on its investigation into allegations of corruption in the procurement of goods and services during the National State of Disaster.
The SIU’s final report on its Covid-19 investigations into possible corruption in procurement was made public in January this year, after it was submitted to the Presidency in late 2021, Daily Maverick’s Ufrieda Ho reported. However, not all investigations were finalised, necessitating a supplementary “final” report on outstanding matters being handed to the President in July 2022.
Reard in Daily Maverick: “Latest SIU report reveals billions more rands of unlawful and dodgy Covid-19 spending exposed”
Lejweleputswa District Municipality
The Lejweleputswa District Municipality area is in the northwestern part of the Free State and is made up of five local municipalities: Matjhabeng, Masilonyana, Nala, Tswelopele and Tokologo.
The Auditor-General’s (AG) report on the 2020/21 municipal audit outcomes revealed that Lejweleputswa Municipality received an unqualified with findings audit outcome. This means the municipality was able to produce quality financial statements “but struggled to produce quality performance reports and comply with all key legislation”.
Both the AG and the local governance ratings agency Ratings Afrika (RA), in its annual municipal financial sustainability index (MFSI), have identified Free State municipalities as the worst-run in the country. Not a single municipality in the province has received a clean audit in the past five years. The dire situation in the province has already led to a breakdown in service delivery which has fuelled unrest in many communities, as residents have grown increasingly dissatisfied with pothole-riddled roads, having to go for days without water, and refuse sometimes not being collected for weeks.
Read in Daily Maverick: “AG slams failing Free State municipalities after no clean audit in 5 years”
The SIU investigation into Lejweleputswa District Municipality was triggered by allegations from a whistle-blower who ...

Provinces aren’t hiring enough teachers, despite a growing need and sufficient supply – Stellenbosch university report

More than 28,000 public-sector teachers graduated in 2021, yet provinces only hired 14,522 graduates – even though South Africa is riding an unprecedented retirement wave of public-school teachers as it faces a growing school-age population. These are the recent findings from the first series of reports from the Teacher Demographic Dividend project released on 1 December, which was conducted by researchers at Stellenbosch University’s research on socioeconomic policy unit over the past three years.
The wave of retired public-school teachers looms larger than ever, as numbers reached 12,500 in 2021, compared with 7,800 in 2013. The wave is set to crash in 2029 when a peak of 17,300 are projected to retire, according to the Teacher Demographic Dividend project’s recent findings.
The project, headed by professors Nic Spaull and Servaas van der Berg at Stellenbosch University, is set to run from 2022 to 2024 with the objective of studying the wave.
“I think the most important thing to note is that while universities have been producing more teachers, provinces have not been hiring them,” Spaull told Daily Maverick.
“Around 2015 we hired 75% of teachers produced, but now provinces are only hiring 50%, despite the fact that more teachers are needed. So that means class sizes are rising.”
Climbing class sizes
Nearly half (49%) of publicly employed teachers in South Africa are aged 50 and above. Teachers are forced to retire at 60, and about half of the teachers leaving the public teaching sector retire below the age of 55, the report found.
There are many reasons behind retirement, ranging from women who leave the labour market to start families, to the pull of more financially attractive teaching options abroad or in the private schooling sector, and frustrations with teaching jobs.
Visit Daily Maverick’s home page for more news, analysis and investigations
To maintain the current number of teachers, South Africa will need to increase the number of graduates by 6,000.
It’s not an easy fix – the school-age population has increased between 2012 and 2021, with the learner-educator ratio shifting from 27:1 to 30:1 and set to increase even more as dropouts decrease and entry into Grade 12 increases.
Where are the teachers?
Teaching graduates increased from 9,000 in 2010 to 28,000 in 2019 and are expected to increase by 200% in the next 10 years, said the report.
Despite this increase, provinces have not been hiring more teachers – 28,335 graduated in 2021, yet provinces were only able to hire 14,524.
The ...

Cape Town mayor bullish on solving city’s sewage crisis but residents say much more needs to be done

The city still has numerous sewage pollution issues, but Geordin Hill-Lewis is ‘on the right track’, says expert.
It has been a year since Geordin Hill-Lewis donned Cape Town’s mayoral chain and declared the city’s sewage pollution crisis a top priority. The City is making some progress, but many of the biggest pollution problems remain.
Arguably the most pressing, and most visible sewage pollution is that of the Diep River estuary, which forms the Milnerton Lagoon.
The estuary receives stormwater and pollution via the Diep River from informal settlements upstream, but activists and scientists believe the main pollution source is the Potsdam sewage treatment works, which releases about 47-million litres of effluent into the Diep River every day. Under the City’s management, the effluent is supposed to be properly treated, but historical data from the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) shows the sewage plant has failed to meet national effluent quality guidelines since 2018.
The extent of the estuary’s pollution led to the provincial government issuing the City a directive to stop the pollution and rehabilitate the estuary more than two years ago. Though the pollution has continued, no further action has been taken by provincial authorities. Any recreational activity on the estuary is currently a health hazard, and surrounding residents have to endure an almost permanent stench emanating from the water.
During his election campaign, Hill-Lewis said he had childhood memories of swimming in the lagoon and intended to return it to a healthy state before the end of his term. But lead researcher at UCT’s Future Water Institute Dr Kevin Winter believes that at the current rate this is unlikely.
Widespread sewage treatment failure
Potsdam is far from the only failing sewage treatment plant. Of the 24 sewage treatment plants managed by the City (excluding three marine outfalls), 15 release effluent into our rivers and oceans that do not meet national DWS guidelines, the DWS dashboard shows. This is just one less than the 16 which were failing last year. Failing sewage plants include Athlone, which is designed to treat 105-million litres of sewage per day. Over the past three months, it has a 0% adherence to national guidelines for faecal coliforms such as E.coli and enterococcus (max 1,000 faecal coli/100ml) and scores 46% for treatment of chemical pollution indicators such as phosphates and nitrates. This partially treated effluent is released into the highly polluted Black River, from which people are known to fish ...

‘One day a year is not enough to fight HIV in South Africa’

Maverick Citizen spoke to activists, researchers and specialists on the eve of World Aids Day to find out if they think the country is coping with the ongoing HIV epidemic. They believe too many people remain undiagnosed, untreated and unsupported.
One in five South Africans is infected with HIV. This is according to the president of the South African Medical Research Council, Professor Glenda Gray, who says the country has seen little decrease in the number of Aids cases over the years.
Does a day like World Aids Day (WAD), then, achieve anything in a country with such high rates of infection?
“For me, no,” answered Hazel Tau, an HIV activist who was central in a court case that forced drug companies to allow generic manufacturers into the market, leading to a reduction in the price of antiretrovirals.
Tau was part of a case that forced big pharma to come to the table in the GlaxoSmithKline, Boehringer Ingelheim & others case at the South African Competition Commission in 2002. It resulted in patented antiretrovirals (ARVs) being licensed to local generic manufacturers.
“I thought we would be in a better situation now. But we’re not. We’re getting worse,” said Tau, “we still have a lot of work to do.”
One day a year that focuses on the epidemic that has been affecting so many South Africans for decades seems inadequate, said Tau.
“I’m not going to go [to give talks] if companies need someone to talk about HIV. For me, that doesn’t give an impact, because I believe it should happen every day.”
The daily duel
As it currently stands, WAD is seen as a “jamboree”, characterised by political lip service, according to Anele Yawa, the general secretary of the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), an organisation dedicated to the fight against the Aids epidemic in South Africa.
“[There hasn’t been] enough attention to prevention or finding undiagnosed cases, and not enough attention to calling out the nonsense that stops diagnosis — countries that still think it’s okay to have laws against gay rights, sex workers, drug users, etc,” said infectious disease expert and HIV doctor Francois Venter.
While the response in SA has improved since the Mbeki-denialism days, Gray gave a diagnosis of “less than optimal”, adding that about three million people in the country are HIV-positive, but are not getting tested and are not on treatment. This means they don’t know their status.
“Our HIV response is in a comatose state and ...

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